Saturday, May 23, 2020
The M1911 pistol was the standard sidearm of the US Armed Forces from 1911 until 1986. Developed by John Browning, the M1911 fires a .45 cal. cartridge and uses a single-action, semi-automatic, recoil-operated action. The M1911 first saw service during World War I and was improved for use in World War II as well as the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Derivative variants of the M1911 remain in use with US Special Forces. The M1911 has proved popular with recreational shooters and is frequently used in competitions. Development In the 1890s, the US Army began searching for an effective semi-automatic pistol to replace the revolvers that were then in service. This culminated in a series of tests in 1899-1900 in which examples from Mauser, Colt, and Steyr Mannlicher were examined. As a result of these tests, the US Army purchased 1,000 Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) Luger pistols which fired a 7.56 mm cartridge. While the mechanics of these pistols were satisfactory, the US Army (and other users) found that the 7.56 mm cartridge lacked sufficient stopping power in the field. A similar complaint was lodged by US troops battling the Philippine Insurrection. Equipped with M1892 Colt revolvers, they found that its .38 cal. round was insufficient to bring down a charging enemy, especially in the close confines of jungle warfare. John Browning. Public Domain To temporarily rectify the situation, older .45 cal. M1873 Colt revolvers were sent to the Philippines. The heavier round quickly proved move effective. This along with the results of the 1904 Thompson-LeGarde tests led planners to conclude that a new pistol should, at minimum, fire a .45 cal. cartridge. Seeking a new .45 cal. design, the Chief of Ordnance, Brigadier General William Crozier, ordered a new series of tests. Colt, Bergmann, Webley, DWM, Savage Arms Company, Knoble, and White-Merril all submitted designs. After preliminary testing, the models from Colt, DWM, and Savage were approved for the next round. While Colt and Savage submitted improved designs, DWM elected to withdraw from the competition. Between 1907 and 1911, extensive field testing took place using both the Savage and Colt designs. Constantly improved as the process moved forward, John Brownings Colt design ultimately won the competition. Colt M1911 Cartridge: .45 ACPCapacity: 7 round detachable box magazineMuzzle Velocity: 835 ft./sec.Weight: approx. 2.44 lbs.Length: 8.25 in.Barrel Length: 5.03 in.Action: Short Recoil Operation M1911 Design The action of Brownings M1911 design is recoil operation. As combustion gases drive the bullet down the barrel, they also exert a reverse motion on the slide and barrel pushing them backwards. This motion ultimately leads to an extractor expelling the spent casing before a spring reverses the direction and loads a new round from the magazine. As part of the design process, the US Army directed that the new pistol possess both grip and manual safeties. Early Use Dubbed the Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911 by the US Army, the new pistol entered service in 1911. Assessing the M1911, the US Navy and Marine Corps accepted it for use two years later. The M1911 saw extensive use with American forces during World War I and performed well. As wartime needs exceeded Colts production capabilities, an additional manufacturing line was established at the Springfield Armory. Improvements In the wake of the conflict, the US Army began assessing the M1911s performance. This led to several minor modifications and the introduction of the M1911A1 in 1924. Among the changes to Brownings original design were a wider front site, shorter trigger, an extended grip safety spur, and a simplified design on the grips. Production of the M1911 accelerated during the 1930s as tensions around the globe heightened. As a result, the type was the principal sidearm of US forces in World War II. Led by their sergeant with a M1911 in hand, a .30-caliber machine gun team crosses a bridge during maneuvers in August 1941. National Archives and Records Administration During the conflict, approximately 1.9 million M1911s were produced by several companies including Colt, Remington Rand, and Singer. The US Army obtained so many M1911s that it did not purchase new pistols for several years after the war. A highly successful design, the M1911 remained in use with US forces during the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Replacement In the late 1970s, the US military came under increasing pressure from Congress to standardize its pistol designs and find a weapon that could utilize the NATO-standard 9mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. A variety of testing programs moved forward in the early 1980s which resulted in the selection of the Beretta 92S as the M1911s replacement. Despite this change, the M1911 saw use in the 1991 Gulf War with a variety of specialized units. The M1911 has also remained popular with US Special Forces units which have carried variants during the Iraq War and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. As a result of their use of the weapon, the Army Marksman Unit began experimenting with improving the M1911 in 2004. Designated the M1911-A2 project, they produced several variants for Special Forces use. Additionally, the US Marine Corps continued to utilize highly-modified M1911s in its Force Reconnaissance units. These were frequently hand-built, customized weapons constructed from existing M1911s. In 2012, a large order of M1911s was placed for Marine Expeditionary Forces (Special Operations Capable) use. This updated model was designated M45A1 Close Quarters Battle Pistol. More recent reports have indicated that M1911 variants were withdrawn from frontline use in 2016. Other Users The M1911 has been produced under license in other countries and is currently in use with numerous militaries around the world. The weapon is also popular with sportsmen and competitive shooters. In addition, the M1911 and its derivatives are in use with law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations Hostage Rescue Team, numerous local S.W.A.T. units, and many local police forces.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Class Location and Mobility of the Hart Family My father, Ken Hart, was the youngest child in a family of five. His parents, Chuck and Sally Hart, had two children prior to him. The younger of the two was his brother, John, and the oldest was his sister, Donna. He grew up in Glendora, California in a middle class neighborhood where both of his parents worked at the local college. While the last three generations of Harts - my great grandfather, grandfather, and father - have belonged to the middle class, their individual socioeconomic statuses have varied due to many different social and economic influences. These influences included the college wage premium they received from their schooling, the increase in mobility they gained from their education, the varying structure of the economy when they were in the work force, and the life chances they had access to. Through the generations, the varying amounts of education, occupancies, and income greatly influenced their socioeconomic st atus. My great grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s class location was in the lower middle class. He did not go to college, instead choosing to work at a gas station after high school. Through years of hard work, he was able to move his way up the chain of command until he had enough money and experience to buy the establishment and run it as his own. Even though he owned his own business, my great grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of education and low income were not enough to help him move higher in class. TheyShow MoreRelatedThe Link Between Health, Social Divisions, Economic Inequality, Physical Environments And Individual Psychological Factors1976 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescauses these disparities, Bartley and Blane have suggested four models to explain social inequalities in health (Bartley and Blane, 2008; Bartley 2004). The first model considers the effect of behaviour on health and suggests that there are social class differences in health behaviours and lifestyles such as drinking, smoking, drug use, diet and active leisure, use of immunisation, contraception and antenatal services. However, it has been argued that access and opportunity are inevitably linked toRead MoreHealth And How An Individual Or Groups Health Can Be Affected By Various Socio Economic And Psychological Factors1960 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescauses these disparities, Bartley and Blane have suggested four models to explain social inequalities in health (Bartley and Blane, 2008; Bartley 2004). The first model considers the effect of behaviour on health and suggests that there are social class differences in health behaviours and lifestyles such as drinking, smoking, drug use, diet and active leisure, use of immunisation, contraception and antenatal services. However, it has been argued that access and opportunity are inevitably linked toRead MoreIndian Caste System5772 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesstrong evidence to support his conclusion. In the Vedic period, there was no prohibition against anyone, including the Shudr as, listening to the Vedas or participating in any religious rite. In Early Evidence for Caste in South India, George L. Hart stated that the earliest Tamil texts show the existence of what seems definitely to be caste, but which antedates the Brahmins and the Hindu orthodoxy. He believes that the origins of the caste system can be seen in the belief system that developedRead MoreCauses of Loitering Problems10544 Words Ã |Ã 43 Pagesteenagers studied have abandoned typical public spaces used for leisure time and produced their own spatial identities in the specifi c space of the shopping mall. They have created a true microculture through a combination of the personalities, locations, and events that they share in in the mall environment. The article also discusses interesting results concerning preference factors for leisure time activities in the mall environment. The concluding part of the article draws implications from theRead MoreMarketing Literature Review11908 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pages Statistical analysis, Implications.] 4 The Impact of Affect on Memory of Advertising. Tim Ambler and Tom Burne, Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (March/April 1999), pp. 25Ã¢â¬â34. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Experiment, Brain locations, Recognition and recall, Propranolol, Placebos, Assessment, Managerial implications.] 5 A Multivariate Analysis of Web Usage. Pradeep K. Korgaonkar and Lori D. Wolin, Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (March/April 1999), pp. 53Ã¢â¬â68. [LiteratureRead MoreCase: Chester Wayne Essay18738 Words Ã |Ã 75 Pagesof this great Company will become evident for the benefit of our shareholders. I thank you for your support in helping Kodak make history. Commercial Inkjet Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stream continuous inkjet technology is a game-changer for the print industry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Offset-class output means digital without compromiseÃ¢â¬âhighest quality, highest productivity, lowest running cost Ã¢â¬ ¢ Expanding solutions and applications, including books, direct mail, newspapers, magazines, catalogs, advertising collateral and packaging AntonioRead MoreInstitution as the Fundamental Cause of Long Tern Growth39832 Words Ã |Ã 160 Pagesliterature). The most famous version of such an argument is due to BanÃ¯ ¬ eld (1958) who argued that the poverty of Southern Italy was due to the fact that people had adopted a culture of Ã¢â¬Å"amoral familiarismÃ¢â¬ where they only trusted individuals of their own families and refused to cooperate or trust anyone else. This argument was revived in the extensive empirical study of Putnam (1993) who characterized such societies as lacking Ã¢â¬Å"social capitalÃ¢â¬ . Although Putnam and others, for example, Knack and Keefer (1997)Read MoreArticle: Performance Appraisal and Performance Management35812 Words Ã |Ã 144 Pagesbring out the effectiveness of the work performed as a goal. In a formal sense, performance appraisal of an individual began in the Wei dynasty (A. D. 261-265) in China, where an Imperial Rater appraisal the performance of members of the official family (Mon appa and Mirza, 1997). Further, that in 1648 it was reported that the Dublin (Ireland) Evening Post evaluated legislators by using a rating scale based upon personal qualities (Hackett, 1928). In 1800s the New York City Civil Service in USA introducedRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words Ã |Ã 522 Pagesconflict: In their greed to make a profit, a marketer convinces those who may be dying from an incurable disease to buy a product that may not be a cure, but which a desperately ill person (or members of his or her family) may choose to purchase in an effort to save the dying family member suffering. Promoting and marketing such products violates rules of marketing ethics. Ethical dilemmas facing marketing professionals today fall into one of three categories: tobacco and alcohol promoting, consumerRead MoreBrand Building Blocks96400 Words Ã |Ã 386 Pagesin gaining both shelf facings and cooperation in implementing marketing programs Finally, brand equity assets provide a competitive advantage that often presents a real barrier to competitors. An association e g, Tide is the detergent for tough family laundry jobs may preempt an attribute that is important for a given segment For example, another brand would find it difficult to compete with Tide for the tough cleaning job segment A strong perceived quality position, such as that of Acura
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Healthcare Industry Overview Grid University of Phoenix Susie Hughes HCS 235 August 1, 2011 Ms. Frutchey Healthcare Industry Overview Grid Complete the Health Care Industry Overview Grid that is located below. There are many areas within the health care that are options for career placement or advancement. We will write a custom essay sample on Healthcare Industry Grid or any similar topic only for you Order Now Research different fields within the industry, such as pharmaceutical/drug, health information systems, and long-term care/gerontology, and fill in each box to contain information regarding the health care industry. There is an example that is already started to help with the process, but ensure you include adequate information to support your findings. Use a minimum of three references to support your information. This assignment is due in Week Three. Industry| Career Explanation| Industry Examples| Role of Health Care Personnel| Manufacturing (Equipment/Supplies)| Offers a wide selection of medical equipment and supplies, from home-health products to examination room products to fit the every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health care needs. Professionals, organizations, and associations may find quality and affordable medical equipment and supplies for clinics, hospitals, nursing facilities and home health environments. | Surgical/medical instrumentsOrthopedic, prostheticsAppliance/suppliesDental equipmentx-ray apparatusrelated irradiation equipmenthospital beds stethoscopesBlood pressure cuffsWound care supplies| Biomedical Equipment Technician- Maintains adjusts, calibrate and repair a wide variety of electronic electromechanical and hydraulic equipment used in hospitals and other medical environments. Medical Supply Representative- Engages in selling and marketing of healthcare products, supplies and equipment. Medical Equipment Delivery Driver- A individual that picks up and delivers medical supplies and equipment. (www. bls. gov)| Pharmaceutical/Drug | Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing industry develops and produces a variety of medicinal and other health-related products that save the lives of millions of people from various diseases and permits many people from suffering from illness to recover to lead productive lives (www. ls. gov). | Develops/produce, and markets medicine approved by the FDAAre allowed to deal with generic/brand named drugs and medical devicesAntibioticsTranquilizersOver-the-counter drugsVitaminsVaccinesSerumsMedicinal Chemicals| Chemist- Searches for new knowledge about chemicals and use it to improve the quality of life. Molecular Biologist- Work in government, hospitals, collegiate institutions and pharmaceutical companies, performing molecular t est to understand disease. Director of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations- Responsible for the FDA compliant manufacturing of clinical supplies and commercial product. Operations also include packing, shipping and receiving materials. (www. bls. gov)| Health Information Systems| Deals with resources, devices, and required methods to store, retrieve,s assemble patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ health information including medical history, symptoms, examination results, diagnostic tests, treatment methods, and all other healthcare provider services. Technicians organize and manage health information data by ensuring its quality, accuracy, accessibility, and security. (www. bls. gov)| EMR-electronic medical recordEHR- electronic health recordsMaster Patient IndexPatient SchedulingBilling/Claim Process(Chin, 2010)| Health Information Management System Technician- Handles databases, planning for information system, identifies existing/future information requirements and expands health policy. Medical Coder- Assigns codes to special medical procedures and services for billing private/public insurance companies. Registered Health Information Administrator-Responsible for the upkeep of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s records in a hospital or other health care facility. (Hill, 2010)| Long-Term Care/Gerontology| * Long-Term Care/Gerontology is an area of health care that deals with, and examines the aging population. | * Home Health care facilitiesNursing HomesAssisted Living CommunitiesRetirement HomesRehabilitationHospiceMental/Substance Abuse Facilities| Bio gerontologist- Studies the physical and biological affects of aging. Long-Term Care Nurse- Tend to the physical and emotional needs of the aging or chronically ill. | References Bureau of Labor Statstics. Occupational Handbook 2010-11 Edition. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. bls. gov Chin, D. (2010). Types of Health Information Sytem. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. comlist_6860442_types_health_information_systems. html Hill, J. (2010). Career in Health Information Systems. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/list_7221980_careers_health_information_systems. html How to cite Healthcare Industry Grid, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Essay for Integrated Nursing Concept. Answer: 1. An illness which occurs for a long duration of time and cannot be cured easily is known as chronicity. It can occur to people of all ages and it takes a long duration of time to relieve the symptom to save the life of a person. The engagement of Australian staff are limited who has a support of self management which the other services can provide. The people having chronic diseases have to be cared after and they should be given support psychologically and they should also be educated. Children at the hospital should be given safe medication and therapy. People with chronic illness should be educated so that they can self medicate themselves. Chronicity depends on ageing, attitudes of health professionals towards the illness, people who live with cancer, transplantation and rehabilitation (Whittemore and Dixon, 2008). Chronicity is a major burden in Australia and its prevalence increases which drives the ageing and an enhancement of risk factors. People should participate in their own health care and requires developing skills for management of the risk factors and also scrutinise their disease, using the healthcare services as well as medication successfully is necessary so that the people can cope with th e diseases which impacts their lives. Patients require being empowered in order to manage their health safely and to get skills as well as knowledge for using health care systems successfully (Nolte and McKee,2008) Depression is the most common disease among the general population, people with heart diseases, stroke or cancer. Depression is a common risk factor for the patients having a heart disease, diabetes mellitus and stoke. For the treatment of depression, it is necessary to use Antidepressants which can also be used to treat anxiety. The moods of the patients who has arthritis and cancer can be improved by behavioural as well as psychological treatment. Depression is co morbid or multi morbid. Depression is a problem in the discussion of psychiatry. On one hand, depression leads to anxiety as well as depressive disorders. Co morbidity of mental disorders can be viewed as the coexistence of the diseases (Fortinash and Holoday-Worret, 2008). . 2. Supporting the self management is a collaboration which helps the patients as well as their families to have knowledge as well as confidence and skills for managing their condition. This would help the patients in managing their health while working in partnership with the providers of health care. The providers of health care can help the patients in engaging with their own care and give them the support as well as information for self managing their conditions. There are education programs in self management aiming at empowering the patients through teaching skills as well as information for improving self care and doctor patient interactions for the enhancement in the quality of life. A patient centred care focuses on self management and a shift towards the health care policy (Kemppainen et al., 2013). Patients having better skills in self management can use the time of the professionals of health care and increase their self care. There should be formal education on self manag ement in order to help the patients engaging in self care (Harris et al., 2008). Failure in communicating successfully has resulted in the difficulty in the recruitment of sustainable number of patients for participating in programs in order to make sure the assessment of traditionally marginalised group. There are many barriers for engaging the professionals of health care including the uncertainty of benefits of programs of self management and the limited local evidence on the impacts of such programs on the self care ability of the patients (Richard . and Shea, 2011). For convincing the professionals as well as the patients, this information is required. Self management education programs aid the patients in developing the techniques and skills to increase self care of the chronic conditions. The professionals of health care ensure that there are enough people who can attain such programs and benefit from them as well. A systematic approach requires being there across the system of health care in order to enhance the coordination of patient care who has chronic conditions. There are Models like Primary Care Partnership which is adopted by Victoria having facilitated the alliance formation among the agencies of health care and the professionals. The partnership varies in size and structure and funding is provided for supporting the formation of the partnership and also establishing the structural information and referral management processes for maximising the access of the patients to the healthcare services. Such a model can enhance the coordination of services for the facilitating of training and education among the health care professionals for supporting management of chronic diseases. The current health care system works well with Australians building a strong general practice foundation and is critical in the efficiency and cost effective of the Australian health care system. The primary health care centre is equipped well in responding to short term ailments. The acknowledgement of the risk factors with complex and chronic conditions is essentia l. The right intensity of the treatment is essential. The size, diversity, cultural and population distribution creates profound variations in the type of care which delivered in different regions (Shives, 2008).. The Health Care Home builds 7 principles which are complementary to the current approaches to the provision of primary health care in Australia. There would be a partnership between the Health Care Home and the patients in accordance to an agreed plan. In order to make this agreement, providers and patients work together in order to address the cause of the conditions optimally address their impact, in order to lead a better life and the acknowledgement of the best local clinical as well as other services which are appropriate to their requirements. Empowering the patients in taking an active role for self treatment, makes them understand and communicate with the healthcare providers about their issues of health and reduces unnecessary tests and the duplication of healthca re services. They support better care of health across the system which is supported accurate and current information. The government aims at putting the patients in the control of their own care with skills and knowledge and confidence for managing their own health supported by the health care team and the carers and families which is proper. Factors contributing to the outcomes includes the supporting the patients for keeping themselves healthy, sharing the making of the decisions, self management, the choice of the provider and an estimation of the services through the structured feedback using evidence based tool like patient reported outcomes (Shift, 2008). Patients require help in understanding the options for their treatment and outcome probabilities if there are multiple health conditions for managing to support evidence based patient choice. Patients should have increased access to the service through the Health Care Homes including non face to face service clinically successful and proper (Timby, 2009). These services are enabled by email, video conference and telephone which may be augmented and supported by home monitoring devices and digital health. The health Care Home includes the access to the after hour support which includes care or advice for enrolled patients for avoiding unnecessary emergency departments and out of hours admission to hospitals. Planning of Care and clinical decisions are evidence- based patient healthcare pathways and supported by best practice decision making tools. References Whittemore, R. and Dixon, J., (2008). Chronic illness: the process of integration. Journal of clinical nursing, 17(7b), pp.177-187. Richard, A.A. and Shea, K., (2011). Delineation of SelfÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Care and Associated Concepts. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(3), pp.255-264. Fortinash, K.M. and Holoday-Worret, P.A., (2008). Psychiatric mental health nursing. Mosby. Nolte, E. and McKee, M., (2008). Integration and chronic care: a review. Caring for people with chronic conditions. A health system perspective, pp.64-91. Shives, L.R., (2008). Basic concepts of psychiatric-mental health nursing. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Shift, A.W., (2008). Chronic disease management: what is the concept?. CJNR, 40(3), pp.7-14. Timby, B.K., (2009). Fundamental nursing skills and concepts. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K. and Turunen, H., (2013). Nurses' roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), pp.490-501. Harris, M.F., Williams, A.M., Dennis, S.M., Zwar, N.A. and Davies, G.P., (2008). Chronic disease self-management: implementation with and within Australian general practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 189(10), p.S17.
Monday, March 23, 2020
Friday, March 6, 2020
Space Travel is Inevitable essays Even before Neil Armstrong made his first steps, people have dreamed about traveling amongst the stars. The Greeks used to tell stories of how the gods lived in the heavens above and described great treks of these deities. The Mayans used a calendar system based off of the stars and large murals that could only be seen from the skies above. This longing to explore has carried mankind to the moon and allowed us to view distant planets. Space exploration is good for mankind but some people see the cost and exclaim that funding could be better used else where. This is far from true. The possibilities of learning about our solar system, the new technologies available, and the differences in cost are all factors that promote space exploration. Planetary probes have already visited various planets and moons in our solar system allow people to learn more about the solar system in which we live. Nothing else has given the people the close-up view of the planets or their moons. No telescope can see the intricate details of the various surfaces these machines can record. Nothing else could provide mankind with the insight that there was life, even though minute, on Jupiters moons. With these probes the government has put into place, people are updating their view of the solar system. People are learning more about the many asteroids and comets and understanding how orbits affect those objects. We have a better understanding of what may occur if one of these asteroids collides with the earth and how it could be the end of mankind. By studying our solar system and devising a means to recognize what could cause a disaster, space exploration could mean the survival of the human race. The technologies provided by the space program have also contributed to the advancement to live here on earth. The kidney dialysis machine that helps so many people stay alive was created through the Apollo program. New insulin pumps can eliminate the need ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Discuss How Benedict's Work Developed Boas Vision of Anthropology And Whether It Also Represented a New Direction In American Anthropology - Essay Example This anthropological method is still considered to be highly effective today, as it reduces bias in analysis (Young, 2005). The idea of cultural relativism is also much championed in the work of Boas. Like Benedict after him, Boas held the belief that each cultural system only has meaning when studied as a whole, apart from other cultural systems. The moral compass of that particular culture should not be judged against our own moral compass, because they have to be seen relatively (Herskovits, 1973). Additionally, both Boas and Benedict understood that culture and cultural systems change over time, which means that there is an element of historical relativism found in both their works (Herskovits, 1973). This means that an anthropologist should look at a culture as an entity in both time and space to fully understand the rituals and symbols found within it (Herskovits, 1973). It is interesting to see how Benedict took these original ideas about cultural anthropology from Boas and de veloped them with her own fieldwork and evidence. For example, some of BenedictÃ¢â¬â¢s early fieldwork was a continuation of BoasÃ¢â¬â¢, working with the Kwakiutl Native American group. Benedict began gathering evidence that, whilst the customs of the Kwakiutl may seem strange, they are intelligible when considered as a part of the whole. This thought was followed on with her own fieldwork on the Pueblo group, found in New Mexico. Again, many of the customs and symbols found in Pueblo culture may seem alien to those reading Ã¢â¬Å"Patterns of CultureÃ¢â¬ , but Benedict (like Boas before her) encouraged the reader to think outside of their own culture to aid... This paper approves that the cultural relativism which was so promoted by Boas and developed by Benedict has come to be a cornerstone of most academic anthropology. Many academic textbooks promote the idea that a degree of neutrality is needed for true anthropological research. It is easy to assume that all cultures share the same moral and ethical values as our own, but many do not. Many make the mistake of assuming that other cultures are somehow Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢ for not adhering to Ã¢â¬ËourÃ¢â¬â¢ values, which ruins empirical fieldwork. In this sense, Boas and Benedict had a huge impact on American anthropology and how it has developed into the scientific field that it is today. Thisreport makes a conclusion that Benedict built on these strong foundations to develop her idea of cultural identity and national personalities, including some of BoasÃ¢â¬â¢ fieldwork in her own research. Overall, the work of Boas and Benedict have been highly influential in the field, having been incorporated into the work of important anthropologists such as Margaret Mead. Particularly important are the emphasis that Boas put onto cultural relativism, suggesting that anthropologists need to be careful when examining other cultures to take the culture as a whole without judgement using personal morals and ethics. Additionally, Boas was highly critical of racism within the field, something which is generally championed by anthropologists working in the field today.